Kyrgyz History

Introduction
In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you are going to be told about history of Kyrgyzstan and short introduction. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan, you will get acquainted with nomadic way of life. It is important to note that, Kyrgyz never built big houses. They thought, it is better not to destroy nature.  In the course of your tours in Kyrgyzstan, you will see scripts on the rocks and Kyrgyz appearance of 2000 years, 201 BC of history. It is worth saying that, Kyrgyz preferred oral speech rather than written.

Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC)
Travelling in Kyrgyzstan will give you opportunity to see development of culture and art. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you can visit the Rock Art Gallery in Cholpon Ata. Being in this amazing place, you will have a chance to find 2000 images carved on stones and rocks as well as petroglyphs for example, various animal pictures as goats, bulls, horses, deers, camels, dogs and others. We have no doubt that, you will like seeing compositions of hunting, plowing, ritual dancing, animals with carts, labyrinths and even erotic. They all belong to the historical events of Kyrgyz Republic.

Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD)
We are glad to see you travelling in Kyrgyzstan and share necessary information about ancient history. It is known that, the ethnonym "Kyrgyz" was found in 201 BC. There was one Chinese historian, his name was Sima Tan. He was first who mentioned in the chronicle "Historical notes" that, Kyrgyzs and other five people conquered by the Hunnu. Moving on, there was next record of saying that, the Kyrgyz dated back to the 1st century BC, where another Chinese chronicle Han-shu (History of Han), which was written by historian Ban Gu. His mentioned about the location of Kyrgyz people. Some sources say that, Kyrgyz state was found somewhere in the area of Eastern Turkestan in the 1st century BC.

Turkic Era (500-1200)
In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will find out the Turkic Era. It was found in the early Middle Ages from the 6th to the 13th centuries. It was period of the migration of Turkic-speaking tribes from the Altai Mountains to the Central Asian region as well as forming the first Turkic dynasties. It is important to note that, there were no any records of Kyrgyz state in the first six centuries and thus was unknown. Kyrgyz Kaganate was first defined in the 7th century on the middle Yenisei River and South Siberia. In this period of time, the ruler was Barsbek ajo-king.  Over the time, they decided to move in 9-10th centuries from the Irtysh River in the west to the Big Khingan range in the east, from the Angara and Selenga Rivers in the north to the Gobi Desert in the south, where the Russian and Soviet historian Barthold brought up the of Great Kyrgyz Empire.

The Mongol Rule (1200-1400)
The Mongol rule in 13th century highlighted the saddest history in Kyrgyz republic and Central Asia. It was period of the destructive Mongol invasion. Generally, the Mongol army was ruled by Genghis Khan. He was first who conquered the territory of Central Asia and later developed Turkic culture. Over the time, the Yenisei Kyrgyz joined to the army of Genghiz Khan in 1207. Chenghiz Khan ruled for several hundred years. 

During your tours in Kyrgyzstan, you will get know that, Kyrgyz decided to join Islam religion in 12th and 15th centuries due to good relations with Persian, Arab, and Turkic traders who traveled along the Silk Road. Over the time, some people said that, there were shamanistic traditions among the Kyrgyzs in the 19th century.

Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800)
Kyrgyz consolidation came to the power in 15th century. Kyrgyz decided to make migration to South Siberia to the territory of present Kyrgyzstan. But still, Kyrgyz statehood was unknown in the period of the 15-19th centuries. Kyrgyz leaders wanted to build their own state but established ethno-political system consisting of two wings and center as well as tribes.  It is important to note that the tribal system continued for four centuries.

Russian Colonization (1770-1917)
It is worth saying that the Russian Colonization brought up a great contribution to the development of Kyrgyz state. In this period of time, northern Kyrgyz got message to join Russia and be protected from external and internal threats coming from China, Koqand and Kazakhs. Over the time, the southern Kyrgyzstan unfortunately was taken by force by Russia due to colonization policy and military campaigns. In the result, all together they established a new administrative-territorial system, which led to the development of the nomadic lifestyle agricultural economy.

Soviet Rule (1917-1991)
Soviet Rule came to the power after Bolsheviks in 1917 and finally opened a new page in the history of Kyrgyzstan. In this period of time, citizens were independent and equal to the government and Central Asia. The Soviet time developed the political, economic and cultural activities. In this period of time, they created the system of elementary, secondary and higher education, the development of professional literature, theatre, painting, cinema, science and the establishment of a large-scale heavy metal processing industry and machinery. It is important to note that, Kyrgyzstan became an independent due to the policy of Bolsheviks. Furthermore Authorization, Collectivization and Cultural Revolution made mass killings of many innocent people.

Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991)
In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will have opportunity to learn necessary information about independent Kyrgyzstan. This period of time was prospering for the country and contributed elements as national flag, emblem and anthem. Over the time, the first Constitution of Kyrgyzstan was accepted in 1993 and on 2nd of March 1992 Kyrgyzstan became a part r of UN. Unfortunately, the prosperity of country gone and experienced mass-scale unemployment which resulted to the deep political, economic and social crisis. It is important to note that, Kyrgyzstan wasn't an "island of democracy" but an "island of instability" in whole Central Asia. 2005 and 2010 years resulted revolutions of two presidents. Later, country moved on and got political stabilization, social and economic development.  In 2010, Kyrgyzstan converted from a presidential to a parliamentary system. There was a transition of power from a president to another in 2017.


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