The territory of todays Kyrgyzstan has very long and fascinating history that starts from Stone Age. During the ages it has been conquered by many different people, lots of troops as those of Djingis Khan, crossed the region and left here traces of their culture.
There are 5000-year-old stone inscriptions and the 3000-year-old town of Osh point at the fact that first people have been living here thousands of years ago. Tribes of nomadic Kyrgyz are some of the oldest in Central Asia and first came here about 2000 years ago. They moved to the south, coming from the Siberian region Yenisey and formed the Kyrgyz Khanate at the beginning of the first millennium.
During the 6 th century, the Khanate of Karakhanids was built up, composed of Turkic tribes. One of the most important cities was the town of Balasagun, which can be visited even today the Burana-tower, only 1 hour drive from Bishkek.
In the 13 th century, the empire was defeated by Djingis Khan, who then established the Mongol Khanate. After the death of the powerful emperor Mongke the Khanate was split up into many small ones, and the region of todays Kyrgyzstan was part of the Chagatai Khanate.
Later, this was transformed into the Kokand Khanate, dominated by Uzbeks, but after an uprise in the years 1873 - 1874 the region became part of the Russian Empire, and, after the October Revolution, of the Soviet Union - since 1936 one of the 16 Soviet Republics.
In 1991, the country became independent and since then is known as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.