History of Kyrgyzstan
To make an introduction about Kyrgyzstan we should say that its history is very interesting. Mainly people in Kyrgyzstan are known for nomadic history when they didn't build cities, towns in order not to harm nature of the country. Also, one of peculiar features is the fact that there were not written representations of information of the people, any testimonies. Instead of it everything was transmitted orally, and information was going from generation tom generation.
In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan you will get to know that Kyrgyz people estimate the 2000 years history. First we find information about people of modern Kyrgyzstan in Chinese notes of 201 BC. Along with it there are eight periods telling us about the history of Kyrgyzstan. Here these periods are:
Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC). The time of prehistory estimates about 1 million years ago - 1 000 BC where there was great development of cultural life in sphere of art as well. And these testimonies may be seen in the Rock Art Gallery in Cholpon Ata. Making a tour in Kyrgyzstan and visiting this gallery you will find out that in the time of the Bronze Age this place was the one of sacred place for spiritual actions. And this made people come here during the times of seasonal meaning. Travelling in Kyrgyzstan you are advised to visit this place and witness 2000 carved on stones images and petroglyphs. These images are representation of fauna of Kyrgyzstan of those times: goats, bulls, horses, deer, camels, dogs and others as well as human beings and anthropomorphic creatures. With the help of petroglyphs ancient people demonstrated scenes of hunting, rituals, dances, sacred actions, labyrinths. And mainly life of the people of Kyrgyzstan of those times may be clearly seen on these pictures, as there were no written ways of transmittance of information.
Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD). Ancient History estimates 1 000 BC - 300 AD and identifies that people in Kyrgyzstan became known due to Chinese testimonies of 201 BC. The Kyrgyz were mentioned in the chronicle "Historical notes" made by Sima Tan. And people in Kyrgyzstan were described as one of 5 peoples, leading wars with the Hunnu. Then new information became known about the Kyrgyz. Historian Ban Gu recorded in chronicles Han-shu (History of Han) in the 1st century BC all he witnessed about the people in Kyrgyzstan. This is the document where we see the first information about the place of inhabitance. According to modern information of the Chinese chronicles, the area was the part of the east of Turkestan that proves the idea that somewhere here ancient people were living.
Turkic Era (500-1200). The era of Turkic powers is known to be in Middle ages from the 6th to 13th centuries, or 500-1200. These dates are periods touching people of modern Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia. Long time ago there was a migration of tribes speaking Turkic language. They were going from the Altai Mountains to the region of Central Asia. But then there is no any information about people in Kyrgyzstan in the period of first six centuries AD. Later, in the 7th century there was the establishment of the Kyrgyz Kaganate. It was created in the South Siberia, on the middle of the Yenisei River. Kyrgyzstan is also known for different powerful people leading the country and kaganate, and in the 7th century the king Barsbek ajo ruled the people. Kyrgyz people of the Yenisei created an empire on the bank of the River Irtysh in the west, and near the range Big Khingan in the east. The empire was stretching from north to south along rivers Angara and Selenga and the Gobi Desert. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan you will know that Russian and soviet historian Barthold made a lot of investigations and let people of the globe know about the Great Kyrgyz Empire and people of this empire.
The Mongol Rule (1200-1400). Kyrgyzstan has some sad periods in its history; one of it is the Mongol Rule in 1200-1400. It was the time of invasions made on the territory of the Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan. People in Kyrgyzstan suffered difficulties in the 13th century when the Mongols were conquering territories. Turkic culture, already developed, was completely brought to the ground by Genghiz Khan and in 1207 people of modern Kyrgyzstan decided to be under his powers.
Long time ago there were no any specific religions, and the Kyrgyz were gentiles. And between 12th and 15th centuries people in Kyrgyzstan were changing their face in a religious way, adopting Islam. This is the religion mainly going from Persian, Arab, and Turkic warriors and travellers along the Great Silk Road in Kyrgyzstan. But it is known that not all people in Kyrgyzstan adopted Islam at once and in the 19th century there were noticed the ones holding shamanistic ideas.
Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800). Since 15th century or the period of Kyrgyz consolidation in 1400-1800, people in modern Kyrgyzstan were going to be local residents of the country. They actually were going from the South Siberia. In comparison with modern period, in 15th-19th centuries there were no any state powers in Kyrgyzstan. As any culture and group of people needs powers to be under protection, there was created a system of two wings of ethno-political system. And in frames of these wings tribes were created with a system of the leader and the people; this system seems to be the same as independent system of ancient Greek states. The system of wings was known to last for more than 4 centuries.
Russian Colonization (1770-1917). The 18th century is known to be the beginning of the period of Russian Colonization, and this period embraces 1770-1917. It is well known that people of modern Kyrgyzstan suffered from invasions from different other regions and from regions of the country itself that is why the part of Kyrgyzstan was looking forward for help from the Russian Empire. And since 15th to 19th centuries there was no a statehood in Kyrgyzstan. The only thing the Kyrgyz leaders, leaders of different regions were striving for being abandoned from China, Koqand and Kazakhs. And the fact is that north of Kyrgyzstan agreed to be under the Russian Empire, but the south was against protection from the Russians. And territories of Kyrgyzstan that became the part of the Russian Empire estimated the creation of new administrative-territorial system. Due to the period of being the part of the Russian Empire, people were going from nomadic way of life to agricultural and economic one.
Soviet Rule (1917-1991). The period of the Soviet Union started in the 20th century, in 1917-1991. All began with the Bolsheviks coming to power and conquering the Russian Empire. The process of the Kyrgyzstan being empowered by the Bolsheviks started with people made to think about absence of exploitation in future; that people will be equal and free with support from government. On one hand the time of Soviet Period was rather productive in politics, economics and culture of Kyrgyzstan. As for main achievements of the period, there was made an end with the time of total non-education, schools and higher education started to develop. Great development was found in the sphere of metal industry and machinery. Kyrgyzstan became a statehood of autonomous powers, but there were restrictions concerning religions - prohibitions to believe in God, only in government. That is why in Kyrgyzstan cases of Atheization, Collectivization and Cultural Revolution were keys to innocent people being killed.
Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991). Kyrgyzstan became independent in 1991, after Bolsheviks ruling in the Soviet Union. With first days of independence it was decided to create symbols of the state: flag, emblem and anthem. Independence of Kyrgyzstan led to the country to be taken as a member of the UN organization on second of March, 1992. Then, next year, 1993, Kyrgyzstan adopted the first Constitution. These were days of happiness for the people of Kyrgyzstan, for its parliament. But then came the period of unemployment of new established independent country. Kyrgyzstan of those times faced with crisis in political, economic and social life. Those times it was impossible to make tours in Kyrgyzstan as the country was considered to be instable one, rather than democratically stable. Then the system was shattered by revolutions happened in 2005 and 2010 leading to presidents surrender government.
But now our country is considered to be politically, economically and culturally stable. Now Kyrgyzstan is a country of great possibilities. Kyrgyzstan is a great country for making tours due to mountainous location. For now country has a parliamentary system, switched from presidential in 2010. The other presidential power transition happened in 2017 leading to successful and peaceful time period.
Kyrgyzstan is a country with interesting history. Being in a tour in Kyrgyzstan you have great opportunity to get to know the country thoroughly, to listen to different legends and truthful facts about the country.